Term used to describe the method of vinification that allows greater contact with oxygen, or even oxidation, in a controlled and dosed manner. This is done at different stages of vinification depending on the desired wine style. The result is very much dependent on the time and amount of oxygen. This is also promoted by little to no sulphurisation and the abandonment of fining and filtration. As a result, esterification influences bottle ageing or aging and changes the colour, smell and taste of the wine. As a rule, this results in full-bodied and long-lived wines, often but not necessarily with a sweeter taste. Characteristic for such wines is a typical nutty tone (hazelnut, walnut). If more pronounced, this is considered a wine defect; see ageing tone.