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BBCH code

Abbreviation for "Federal Biological Research Centre, Federal Plant Variety Office and Chemical Industry". The BBCH code or the BBCH scale provides information on the morphological development stage in the vegetation cycle of a plant and is used in scientific communication on questions of plant development and the optimal or recommended time of application of fertilisation and plant protection measures in crop cultivation. Each of the ten main stages is divided into ten substadia. As early as 1977, Dr. K. W. Eichhorn and Dr. H. Lorenz developed a system which described the development of the vine from hibernation to leaf fall in 47 stages. This system was then transferred to the BBCH code in 1994. Only the numerical code was changed, the stages remained the same. The ten main BBCH stages are (the vine in brackets)

BBCH Main Stadiums

  • 00-09 - Germination (development of bud/germination)
  • 10-19 - Leaf development (leaf development)
  • 20-29 - tillering (not applicable to vine)
  • 30-39 - Shooting (not applicable to vines)
  • 40-49 - ear thresholds (not applicable to vines)
  • 50-59 - ear pushing (formation of the crop)
  • 60-69 - Flower (bloom)
  • 70-79 - Fruit development (Fruit development)
  • 80-89 - seed ripeness (ripeness of berries)
  • 90-99 - death of annual or dormant perennial plants

The vine-specific developmental macro stages in detail are:

0 - hibernation, budding

  • 00 - dormancy: winter eyes pointed to round arched, light to dark brown depending on the variety; bud scales more or less closed depending on the variety
  • 01 - Beginning of bud swelling: eyes begin to enlarge
  • 03 - end of bud swelling: buds swollen but not yet green
  • 05 - Wool stage: wool-like brown hair clearly visible
  • 07 - beginning of bud burst: green shoots become visible
  • 09 - bud burst: green shoot tips clearly visible

Winterruhe, Knospenschwellung, Austrieb

1 - Sheet development

  • 11 - first leaf unfolded and splayed from shoot
  • 12 - two leaves unfolded
  • 13 - three leaves unfolded
  • 14-19 - more and more leaves unfolded

5 - Development of the flowering plants(flower bud)

  • 53 - Clearly visible (inflorescences)
  • 55 - blooms (inflorescences) increase; single flowers are densely packed together
  • 57 - buds (inflorescences) are fully developed; the individual flowers are spreading

6 - Flower

  • 60 - First flower caps detach from the flower base
  • 61 - Beginning of flowering: 10% of the flower caps shed
  • 62 - 20% of the flower caps shed
  • 63 - Pre-flowering: 30% of the flower caps shed
  • 64 - 40% of the flower caps shed
  • 65 - Full flowering: 50% of the flower caps shed
  • 66 - 60% of the flower caps shed
  • 67 - 70% of the flower caps shed
  • 68 - 80% of the flower caps shed
  • 69 - End of flowering

Gescheinsbildung, kurz vor der Blüte, Blüte

7 - Fruit development = fruit set

  • 71 - ovaries begin to enlarge; "cleaning of the berries" is completed
  • 73 - berries are coarse-grained; grapes begin to sink
  • 75 - berries are pea-sized; grapes hang
  • 77 - Start of grape closing
  • 79 - End of grape closure

Fruchtansatz, Véraison, Maturation

8 - Fruit maturity = Veraison, maturation, commitment, physiological maturity

  • 81 - Beginning of ripening, berries begin to lighten (or begin to discolour)
  • 83 - Progression of berry whitening (or berry discoloration)
  • 85 - Softening of the berries
  • 89 - Full ripeness of the berries (ripeness for harvesting)

9 - onset of dormancy = leaf fall

  • 91 - After the harvest: Completion of the wood ripening
  • 92 - Beginning of leaf discoloration
  • 93 - Beginning of leaf fall
  • 95 - 50% of the leaves have fallen off
  • 97 - End of leaf fall
  • 99 - Harvested material / grapes

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