The red grape variety originates from Croatia, but is mainly cultivated in California under the name Zinfandel. The German pronunciation is "Zin-fan-del", in American the "a" is swallowed and the name is pronounced as "Zinfn-dell" or also briefly as "Zin". According to DNA analyses carried out by Dr Carole Meredith and John Bowers at the University of California (Davis) in close collaboration with Croatian and Italian grapevine specialists from 1994 to 2011, the identity, which had been unclear for many decades, was clarified. Three varieties grown in Europe and one in the USA are identical:
The variety is therefore also called ZPC = Zinfandel / Primitivo / Crljenak Kaštelanski. Primitivo and Tribidrag/Zinfandel are not 100% identical according to DNA analyses, but they are considered one grape variety. According to the ampelographic rule, a variety is named after the oldest name used, which is why the name Tribidrag, already mentioned in the 15th century, was suggested in the grape variety bible "Wine Grapes". The history of the identity clarification is described under Tribidrag.