Internationally common abbreviation for the English term deoxyribonucleinacid. The German DNS (deoxyribonucleic acid) is hardly used anymore to avoid confusion with the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet. The structure of DNA was elucidated in 1953 by the biologists James Watson (*1928) and Francis Crick (1916-2004), who received the Nobel Prize for Medicine in 1962 with Maurice Wilkins (1916-2004).
The name is derived from the basic DNA building blocks deoxyribose (a type of sugar consisting of five carbon atoms, a pentose), phosphoric acid and four bases, which make up the nucleic acid. DNA is a chain molecule in the cell nuclei of all plant, animal and human organisms, which serves as a carrier of genetic information for the maintenance of all biological life processes and is inherited. The genes are responsible for each individual function in an organism, such as cell division or metabolism. However, they do not carry out these functions directly, but have "service organs" for them, the proteins, so to speak