The history of this famous French wine in the southern Rhône is closely linked to the Roman Catholic Church. From 1309 to 1377 the city of Avignon was the seat of the popes and from 1378 to 1408 of two counter-popes. Clement V (1264-1314) was here in the year 1309 as the first pope in exile, which was followed by further six. One of them was Pope John XXII (1244-1334), born in Cahors, who chose Châteauneuf Castle as his summer residence. He had the château extended to become a summer residence and gave important impulses to viticulture. He had winegrowers from the Cahors area come here to establish viticulture and produce a red wine called "Vin d'Avignon". This was, so to speak, the predecessor of Châteauneuf-du-Pape, but this name only became common in the 19th century. The landmark of the city of Avignon with two crossed keys (those of Saint Peter) reminds on this past.