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The famous Greek philosopher Socrates (470-399 BC) lived poor and needless in Athens (" When I walk through the marketplace, I see so many things I don't need"). He became the idol of young Athenians, but aroused the envy and ill-will of the powerful. He called his method or art of conversing to lead fellow men to perplexity and knowledge of their not-knowing - " I know that I do not know" - maeeutics (midwifery knowledge), alluding to his mother's profession. The saying is often mistakenly mentioned in many sources as "I know that I know nothing" (instead of "not", therefore, "nothing"), which sounds insignificant but has a different meaning after all.

Sokrates - Büste Museum Neapel - Tod des Sokrates

The basic assumption of meeutics is that the truth lies in the innate reason of every human being and only needs to be "delivered" (brought to light). For alleged impiety and corrupting influence on youth, he was found guilty by a narrow majority (281 out of 501 votes) and, after another vote, sentenced to death by drinking a cup of hemlock (suicide). He left nothing in writing, but his pupils Aristophanes, Plato and Xenophon wrote down his teachings, which also dealt with the consumption of wine. The painting by Anselm Feuerbach shows a scene from the famous work "Symposion" by Plato (428/427-348/347 BC) with the participants Aristophanes (450-380 BC) and Socrates.

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