The capital of the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate covers almost 100 square kilometres and has 215,000 inhabitants. It lies opposite the mouth of the Main on the Rhine. Winegrowing has an ancient tradition in the city and dates back to Roman times, when they planted vines in Mogontiacum. The oldest document about viticulture in Mainz reports about a donation in 754. From the Middle Ages onwards, viticulture and wine trade developed into an important economic factor and even became the main sources of income until well into the 19th century. Within the city limits there were also always large areas of vineyards, the former record being around 450 hectares. Today there are still more than 200 hectares of vineyards in the southern districts of Ebersheim, Hechtsheim and Laubenheim, all of which belong to the Nierstein area in the Rheinhessen wine growing region.