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ADI

Abbreviation for "acceptable daily intake". This refers to the acceptable amount of a substance that a person can take in daily throughout his or her lifetime without negative or health-damaging consequences. As a rule, the quantities are determined in animal experiments, whereby the corresponding substances (pollutants) are ingested daily through the diet over a longer period of time.

The information is then given in mg/kg body weight. A substance quantity that has not caused any changes in animal experiments is called no-effect level (NEL). To calculate the maximum tolerable level in humans, this value is divided by 100. The "safety factor 100" is intended to take into account unknown risks, such as particularly sensitive persons, extreme deviations from average consumption and other unknown factors. Thus, if a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight/day is considered safe for the animal, the acceptable daily intake in humans would be only 1 mg/kg body weight/day. This is the ADI value. The definition "not specified" means that the tolerable dose could not be or has not yet been determined. This is because for many substances, even large quantities do not produce effects in animal experiments. The ADI values are published by the WHO (World Health Organization).

Various substances in food and alcoholic beverages such as wines and spirits can be harmful above certain quantities, therefore limit values are defined. These are, for example, acetaldehyde, allergens, lead (see also under heavy metals), cadaverine, diammonium phosphate, acetic acid, proteins/gluten, ethyl carbamate, isoamylamine, histamine, caffeine, methanol, ochratoxin A, phenylethylamine, putrescine, sulphurous acid, silver chloride, thiamine and tyramine.

With regard to alcohol quantities, the WHO publishes a "presumably non-harmful upper limit". However, no ADI value is given in order to avoid misinterpretation. There are also the codes TWI (Tolarable Weekly Intake) and PTWI (Provisional Tolarable Weekly Intake), as well as the MAK value (Maximum Workplace Concentration). Which regularly consumed amount of alcohol is probably (!) not harmful to health is described under Health. Tabular lists of relevant substances can be found under the two keywords total extract (wine ingredients) and agents used in winemaking.

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