Variety of the grape variety Traminer; see there.
The exact origin of the white grape variety is uncertain; it could come from Germany, France or the Czech Republic (Moravia). Although the different varieties differ in terms of berry colour, aroma, leaf shape and grape size, as well as in terms of vigour, yield and susceptibility to disease, they have almost the same DNA profile with minor differences. They are therefore regarded as a single grape variety, although in many grape variety catalogues they are listed separately as independent varieties. There are the following three main varieties:
Savagnin Blanc (France) or Gelber Traminer, Weißer Traminer, Traminer (German-speaking area): The French name (also called Savagnin) is mostly given in international sources. Whether it is then really White Traminer or Gewürztraminer is not always beyond doubt. This variety is characterised by odourless, yellow-green berries.
Gewürztraminer or Red Traminer or (especially in France) Savagnin Rose Aromatique: The German name (often with "u" in the English-speaking world) is surprisingly also common internationally. This by far the most common variety is characterized by aromatic, reddish/orange berries, which give the wine its typical, name-giving note
Savagnin Rose or Klevener de Heiligenstein or Savagnin Rose Non Musqué: This non-aromatic variety with reddish-brown berries is rare; it occurs almost exclusively in the French Alsace and in the municipality of Durbach (Baden).
In the German-speaking countries, the sources usually distinguish between two types of Traminer: White Traminer or Yellow Traminer and Gewürztraminer or Red Traminer. If only the name Traminer is given, it is usually the Gewürztraminer, but it can also mean the White/Yellow Traminer. For the two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose there are separate keywords with additional information (see there).
DNA analyses carried out independently by various biologists in Italy, France, Germany and Austria have proven that the French varieties Savagnin Blanc, Rose and Aromatique, the Swiss varieties Heida, Heidarot and Païen, the Italian Traminer Aromatico and all varieties referred to as Traminer in the German-speaking world are identical. The Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz therefore believes that it is wrong to speak of a "Traminer family", as this would also associate other relationships such as "siblings" or "aunts" and "uncles", which is not true.
The approximately 200 synonyms in countless languages are a record and prove the high age and widespread use. In most countries, there is no separation in the recording of the varieties, but they are usually listed together. The following synonyms are used as a general, neutral designation for Traminer or for the white/yellow variety, but also, confusingly, often for all varieties (there is no clear assignment). The most important synonyms grouped alphabetically by country are Adelfranke, Edeltraube, Fränkisch, Frennschen, Frentschen, Klevner, Rotfrensch, Weißfrennschen (Germany); Edler Weiß, Weißedler (Alsace); Beaunié, Fromenteau, Fourmentans, Gentil Blanc, Naturé, Naturel, Sauvagnin, Savagnin Jaune, Savagnin Vert, Viclair (France); Traminac (Croatia); Klevner (Austria); Heida, Païen (Switzerland); Brynšt, Drumin, Prync, Tramín Bíly (Czech Republic); Traminec (Slovenia); Altdeutsche, Malvoisie (South Tyrol); Formentin (Hungary). The specific synonyms for the two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose are listed there.
Despite several DNA analyses, the parenthood of Traminer has not been completely clarified, or there are three different theses. The first thesis is that Traminer was selected from wild vines. Now, according to the DNA comparison, there is a Eltern-Nachkommen-Beziehungparent-offspring...