In the New World, it has already become common since the 1980s to replace the flavour components of oak that arise during barrique ageing with a cheaper and less complex method. In this process, oak fragments of various sizes and shapes are placed in or added to the containers used for fermentation and/or ageing (e.g. stainless steel tanks). These can be boards, staves (inner staves), cubes, chips (oak chips) or shavings that have been subjected to toasting (roasting ) in the same way as the barrique barrels. Smaller fragments are packed in perforated bags or wire cages that are hung in the steel tanks for ageing.
The glossary is a monumental achievement and one of the most important contributions to wine knowledge. Of all the encyclopaedias I use on the subject of wine, it is by far the most important. That was the case ten years ago and it hasn't changed since.Andreas Essl