This refers to the process, also known as vinification, with all the procedures and measures in the vineyard and cellar to produce a wine from grapes. Grape varieties were already cultivated and wine produced at least 6,000 to 8,000 years ago, as evidenced by plant remains found in Asia Minor and numerous ancient wine vessels and artefacts from many regions. Transcaucasia and the advanced civilisations of Mesopotamia are considered the cradle of wine culture. According to the latest research, however, the origin may also lie in neighbouring Turkish south-east Anatolia near the biblical mountain Ararat. The origin of European viticulture, however, lies primarily in ancient Greece and on the island of Crete. Of course, at that time this was done with rather primitive methods. This complex of topics is described under the keywords Ancient Wines, Ancient Grape Varieties as well as the development of the "cultural asset wine" under Drinking Culture.
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