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Wine production volumes

Grapes are grown in about 100 of the more than 200 countries of the world. In most of them, wine is also made from them with varying proportions. For the production of quality wine, certain climatic and weather conditions are required (see under Wine Growing Qualities). Areas with optimal conditions for viticulture are usually relatively small (see under Origin). The following sections deal with the world's vineyards and wine production. The source was the OIV Bulletin of 2012 (the last year currently published there). The vast majority of vineyards are located in the vine belts at latitudes 40 to 50 degrees north and 30 to 40 degrees south:

Wein-Produktionsmengen - Weltkarte mit Weinbaugebieten

After strong growth until the end of the 1970s, vineyards, especially in Europe, declined steadily until the end of the 1990s. From the mid-1980s onwards, the main reasons were the grubbing-up programme decreed by the then Secretary-General Mikhail Gorbachev (*1931) as a measure against alcoholism in the USSR, and the grubbing-up premiums in the European Union, which had a particularly strong impact in Italy, France and Spain. The three-year period during which the EU granted permanent abandonment premiums expired in 2011. Despite this, there was a global surplus production, which means that around 5 to 10% more wine was produced than consumed. Within the EU there were therefore prioritised countermeasures such as compulsory distillation.

Between 1998 and 2002, the area under vines increased again, but since 2003 the world area under vines has been declining again, despite an increase in grape production. This is due to higher yields, especially from Asian producers with the artificial irrigation practised there. In Europe there was a reduction of 885,000 hectares (18%) between 2000 and 2012. The global area was reduced by 221,000 hectares (3%) in these 12 years. Strong growth in Asia has been particularly strong in China and India with 377,000 hectares (27%) and America with 151,000 hectares (17%). In Asia, a significant proportion of vineyards is dedicated to the production of non-wine products, particularly India, Iran, Turkey and Syria.

Vineyards

With regard to areas under vines, a distinction is made between productive area (from which grapes are harvested), area under vines (including area not yet productive) and total area under vines (including unplanted fallow). The following figures represent the area under vines. Grapes are divided into wine grapes(wine grapes), table grapes and dried grapes for raisin production. In 2012, the total global quantity of wine grapes was around 60%. The total area under vines in 2012 with 74,870 km² is roughly equivalent to Austria (84,000 km²) or one fifth of Germany (357,000 km²). The area under vines in 1,000 hectares in comparison of the two years 2000 with 2012(Oceania = Australia and New Zealand):

YEAR WORLD EUROPA AFRICA ASIA AMERICA OCEANIA
2000 7.708 = 100% 4.978 = 65% 320 = 4% 1.424 = 19% 869 = 11% 117 = 2%
2012 7.487 = 100% 4.093 = 55% 372 = 5% 1.801 = 24% 1.020 = 14% 200 = 3%

Wine production

In 2012, a total of 258 million hectolitres or 25.8 billion litres of wine were produced worldwide. This corresponds to 34.4 billion 0.75-liter bouteilles or a cube with 300 meters of side length. However, only about half of this is actually bottled, the other half in other containers. Europe's high share of wine production, at around two thirds, in contrast to the area under vines, which is "only" 55%, shows on the one hand the higher proportion of table grapes and raisins in the other continents, and on the other hand the lower yields and thus higher quantities of quality wine in Europe. About one third of the volume of wine was exported (see also Wine Trade). Wine production volumes in million hectolitres in comparison between the two years 2000 and 2012:

YEAR WORLD EUROPA AFRICA ASIA AMERICA OCEANIA
2000 273 = 100% 199 = 73% 9,1 = 3% 11,7 = 4% 44,8 = 16% 8 = 3%
2012 258 = 100% 165 = 64% 11,9 = 4% 15,5 = 6% 51,7 = 20% 14,2 = 5%

Wine-growing countries

A list of countries ranked according to the area under vines in 2012 shows that the ranking according to wine production is sometimes completely different. For example, Turkey is only in 32nd place in terms of production, but in 5th place according to vineyard area. The reason is simply that table grapes or raisins are produced there for the most part (also due to the ban on alcohol for devout Muslims). The greatest growth is in China, where the area under vines has increased more than three times in only 12 years. Many major wine companies are investing there to avoid climate change - because China is profiting from it. Other major newcomers since 2000 in terms of vineyards were Australia, Chile and New Zealand in particular, while Bulgaria, Croatia, Mexico, Tajikistan, Hungary and Cyprus were major drop-outs.

COUNTRY PRODUCTION 1.000 HL VINEYARD AREA HECTARE
YEAR 2000 2012 2000 2012
Spain 34.162 31.123 1,184.000 1,017.000
France 56.271 41.548 915.000 792.000
Italy 54.386 45.616 909.000 713.000
China 9.581 13.511 218.000 706.000
Turkey 311 546 584.000 497.000
USA (including California) 20.386 21.650 376.000 412.000
California 18.000 18.000 320.000 320.000
Portugal 6.828 6.327 257.000 233.000
Iran ? ? 274.000 226.000
Argentina 13.456 11.778 208.000 222.000
Chile 5.066 12.554 147.000 206.000
Romania 6.173 3.311 253.000 192.000
Australia 7.380 12.259 106.000 162.000
Moldova 2.151 1.470 162.000 142.000
South Africa 7.837 10.569 112.000 135.000
Uzbekistan 564 390 103.000 121.000
India 114 146 44.000 120.000
Greece 3.832 3.115 131.000 110.000
Germany 9.989 9.012 104.000 102.000
Brazil 2.920 2.967 59.000 91.000
Ukraine 1.414 2.400 125.000 78.000
Algeria 391 492 59.000 74.000
Egypt 27 45 58.000 71.000
Bulgaria 2.811 1.442 113.000 67.000
Afghanistan ? ? 52.000 62.000
Russia 2.512 6.220 76.000 62.000
Hungary 4.126 1.818 126.000 52.000
Syria ? ? 75.000 49.000
Georgia 1.503 830 76.000 48.000
Morocco 350 345 49.000 48.000
Austria 2.351 2.125 50.000 44.000
Serbia 1.933 2.175 ? 44.000
Tajikistan 74 2 34.000 44.000
New Zealand 568 1.940 11.000 38.000
Croatia 2.096 1.293 59.000 29.000
Mexico 1.340 389 43.000 29.000
Turkmenistan 317 390 28.000 29.000
Peru 150 650 11.000 26.000
Northern Macedonia 1.069 781 30.000 23.000
Tunisia 365 284 28.000 21.000
Slovakia 482 384 22.000 20.000
Japan 949 800 22.000 19.000
South Korea ? ? 31.000 18.000
Armenia 50 58 18.000 17.000
Pakistan ? ? 10.000 17.000
Czech Republic 514 470 13.000 17.000
Azerbaijan 129 79 44.000 16.000
Slovenia 476 507 17.000 16.000
Switzerland 1.222 1.004 15.000 15.000
Yemen ? ? 24.000 14.000
Lebanon 188 90 18.000 14.000
Kazakhstan 179 155 12.000 13.000
Iraq ? ? 14.000 12.000
Canada 403 570 8.000 12.000
Albania 153 190 5.000 10.000
Libya ? ? 8.000 9.000
Montenegro 163 174 ? 9.000
Uruguay 999 962 10.000 9.000
Cyprus 586 107 20.000 9.000
Israel 85 270 6.000 8.000
Bosnia and Herzegovina 46 56 4.000 6.000
Kyrgyzstan 21 13 8.000 6.000
Bolivia 20 73 4.000 5.000
Thailand ? ? 3.000 5.000
Jordan ? ? 4.000 4.000
Madagascar 89 84 2.000 3.000
Taiwan ? ? 3.000 3.000
Malta 35 22 1.000 2.000
Tanzania ? ? 2.000 2.000
Venezuela ? ? 1.000 2.000
England 14 8 900 1.200
Luxembourg 136 85 1.000 1.000
Poland ? ? 300 300
Netherlands ? ? 200 200
Ireland ? ? 100 100
Belgium 3 3 30 30
Liechtenstein ? ? 25 25

Other countries are Bhutan, Cape Verde, Cuba, Denmark, Ecuador, Estonia, Finland, Indonesia, Kenya, Laos, Latvia, Lithuania, Myanmar (Burma), Namibia, Nepal, Norway, Paraguay, Philippines, Sweden, Sri Lanka, Uganda, Vietnam, Wales, Belarus and Zimbabwe.

in-depth information

See also under the keywords Africa, Asia, Europe, New World, South America and USA. For more information on the subject area, see northernmost vineyard, southernmost vineyard, highest vineyard, largest wine companies in the world, largest wine region/vine area in the world and smallest vineyards & vineyards. A complete list of all keywords relevant to grape varieties can be found under Grapevine.

Graphics: Der Winzer 1 - viticulture, Ulmer Verlag 2019, 4th edition

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