In order to effectively use water as an essential means for photosynthesis and supply of nutrients to the vine, there must be a rapid drainage through run-off or seepage into the vineyard soil. If necessary, this must be ensured by artificially created measures. This is supported, for example, by cover crop or by an organic mulch cover. In extreme cases, artificial drainage must be created at a correspondingly high cost. By the way, the vineyards of the Médoc were only transformed from a partly "swampy landscape" into today's world-famous wine-growing region in the 17th century by extensive and elaborate drainage measures.
A certain amount of water for the supply of the plants must of course be maintained or bound by the soil and therefore varies greatly depending on the soil type. If the seepage of excess water is prevented by an impermeable layer, waterlogging can occur. Prolonged waterlogging is extremely damaging from spring onwards, because it restricts root growth and limits the activity of microorganisms in the soil. This leads to an insufficient supply of nutrients. Wetness in the soil at the time of flowering leads to poor fruit set and trickling.