The municipality in the area of Côte de Nuits in Burgundy was already called "Vaoa" at the beginning of the 7th century. From the 9th century it belonged to the Priory of Saint-Vivant of the Benedictine order. In 1232 vineyards were donated to the monks. In 1651, the vineyard was renamed "Le Cloux" in "La Romanée" because Roman ruins were discovered nearby. This small site of less than one hectare then developed into one of the most famous Burgundian vineyards. The name of the best site was added to the name of the municipality in 1866, as in many Burgundian municipalities.
The vineyards cover a total of 156 hectares of vineyards. The soil is made up of a special mixture of white oolite (small mineral spheres cemented by a calcareous, clayey binder), marly limestone and brown-coloured clayey-calcareous layers. The six Grands Crus have cult status and are called La Grande Rue (1.4 ha), Samba (6 hectares), Richebourg (8 hectares), La Romanée (0.84 ha), Romanée-Conti (1.8 ha) and Romanée-Saint-Vivant (10 hectares). La Tâche and Romanée-Conti are fully owned by the Domaine de la Romanée-Conti. The red wines are mainly made from Pinot Noir with, if necessary, shares of Pinot Liébault and Pinot Gris and are among the absolute top wines in Burgundy.