As early as 6,000 if not 8,000 years ago, vines were cultivated for the first time and wine was produced (see in detail under the keywords Mesopotamia, Ancient Wines and Drinking Culture). This makes the winegrower (vintner) one of the oldest professions, so to speak. In the course of many thousands of years, numerous professions and functions as well as a rich tradition have developed around wine. Many winegrowing professions and customs have died out, but naturally many new ones have also developed. In the individual wine-growing countries there are corresponding training courses offered by state and private institutions. In this wine encyclopaedia, all current professions/functions and institutions are included as keywords.