Period in the annual vegetative cycle of the vine after fruit set. This is the beginning of ripening of the berries. In the northern hemisphere it begins at the end of July/beginning of August, depending on the grape variety and weather conditions, in the southern hemisphere in January. The still green and hard berries reach about half of their final size. As they begin to ripen, they gradually change into a softer, more plastic state. From a certain degree of softness on, the colour change takes place and the berries begin to become light (berry lightening) or change colour. The poisonous green colour of the berries changes to green-white, white, yellow, yellow-green, grey, pink, red or purple for the white wine varieties and blue, purple or black for the red wine varieties. However, this does not happen to all berries at the same time, but first of all to those that were first fertilized during flowering and have been exposed to the sun and heat the most.