These are different methods of directing the growth of the vine in a specific way. The vine is a climbing plant (liana) that cannot stand upright by itself and therefore needs a climbing aid or support structure. The wild vines usually climb up young trees and grow upwards with them. For longer cultivation and in order to be able to use machinery, the vines must keep their shape and not (which they would do) grow higher and higher. Thousands of years ago, man therefore began to shorten the shoots and use artificial support devices such as poles or sticks, frames and slats with taut cords or wires. A decisive measure during the winter break (resting period) is pruning, during which the annual wood is cut. With annual measures (winter pruning, summer pruning and foliage care) the effects of apical dominance are counteracted in order to maintain the chosen educational system.
It is proven from pictorial representations that even the Egyptians deliberately grew vines for wine production. A well-known example is the one from the grave of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 BC. Various winemaking steps such as grape harvesting and fermentation in containers, as well as the loading of a ship with amphorae are depicted. The baldachin-shaped overhead education shown in the picture resembles a pergola or trellis education system. Most of the finds come from the present-day city of Luxor in Upper Egypt. A private vineyard is described in inscriptions from the grave of Metjen, a high official in the 4th dynasty (2620 to 2500 BC). He owned a large estate with vineyards in Sakkara in the Nile Delta, which are described in the inscription as follows: A very large pond was created, figs and grapes were planted. Trees and grapes were planted in large quantities and a lot of wine was made from them.
The Romans used to lay beams on four vertically arranged piles, thus creating a kind of chamber. This historical method of education, with its variations as a closed or open chamber, was still widespread in German viticulture in the Palatinate at the beginning of the 20th century. The picture on the right shows a medieval depiction of work in the vineyard around 1180, which is obviously the most common form of single-pile education in many countries at that time.
The criteria for choosing the ideal form of cultivation are, in addition to traditional practices, the type of soil, the desired yield, the climatic conditions, the grape variety with its vigour and tendency to grow high or wide, the ease with which vine diseases can be controlled or prevented, and the requirements of cultivation. A certain system is also often prescribed by wine law. In the Champagne region, for example, only four specific training systems are permitted, even depending on the grape variety. In the second half of the 20th century, the forms of cultivation have changed drastically. Rationalisation and the requirements of mechanised vineyard management were at the forefront.
The aim of all educational systems is to achieve the best possible foliage wall structure in order to ensure the desired quality and quantity, to achieve advantages in terms of labour economy and to make optimum use of the available environmental resources. For the selection of the educational system it is also decisive, among other things, whether wine grapes for vinification or table grapes for consumption are to be produced and which harvesting method (manual or mechanical) is to be used. The individual forms of training are named after the height of the trunk, the distance between the vines, the way in which the newly growing canes are attached or even the inventor (such as Jules Guyot).
Through the winterly Pruning it is determined where and how many new shoots grow in spring from the remaining winter buds, from which the shape of the vine develops. With regard to the choice of the education system, the following points have an influence on the quality of the grapes or later wine:
The height of the grape zone is a factor in the amount of work and susceptibility to certain vine enemies. The closer to the ground, the more labour-intensive is the care and the more likely it is that in rainy areas, fungi can get onto the grapes and cause above all botrytis, downy mildew and black rot. An advantage in northern areas is earlier ripening. The grape zone is between 80 and 130 centimetres and higher. The height has an effect on the exposure (the angle of the sunlight) and therefore on the distance between the rows of grapes.
The selected system should have a good leaf wall structure. As many leaves as possible should be exposed to direct sunlight during the day. If the leaves are in the shade, the photosynthesis performance decreases.
The distance between the canes is 1.20...