Designation (also private label) of special bottlings of wine, sparkling wine or spirits, which are produced by producers for hotels, gastronomy and trade companies (supermarkets) in mostly large quantities and provided with a special label. In doing so, certain consumer wishes or trends are taken into account and, if necessary, the products are also vinified in a special form desired by the retailer. For champagne, the protected designation is Marque d'Acheteur (MA). The big French négociants (trading houses), who produce their own brands from purchased grapes, musts or wine, are called négociant éleveur. However, the term branded wine has a completely different meaning. See also under Bordeaux wine trade, globalisation and wine trade.