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Surface dimensions

The metric system is the basis for all surface dimensions valid worldwide today. Furthermore, in many European countries, some of the very old surface dimensions are still in use. In viticulture, hectares (Hectar) are common in Europe, in the Anglo-American area mostly acres for the size of vineyards. The old area measurements used to be based on the use of land and soil. The designations or Hektarsizes were based on the work done - whether a vineyard was dug up, a field sown or ploughed, or a meadow mowed. The area that a man could plough over with a spade in a vineyard in one day resulted in a grave. The morning and the yoke corresponded to the size of an area of arable land that could be ploughed over in one morning. One day's mowing or man's mowing was the equivalent of the area that a mower could mow in one day.

In addition to the amount of work, sowing and harvesting were also used as criteria for determining the area. In the case of arable land, it was the quantity of seed given by a measure (Metzen, Mutt, Star), in the case of meadows it was the unit of yield achieved (Fuder, Hayuder). The area sizes were often different and varied from region to region. They were not exact sizes but rough approximations. Even within one country there was no great need for standardisation, as land transport was handled locally. Only towards the end of the 18th century were precisely measured sizes based on standard dimensions introduced. Before the introduction of the metric system, the square fathom was one such size.

Designation

Area

Comment

Field 2.250 - 5.530 m² german-speaking region
Acre 4.047 m² anglo-American region
Ar 100 m² metric system
Campo 0.333 ha Northern Italy
Dekária 1.000 m² Cyprus
Grave (grave, man grave) 540 m² / 577 m² Tyrol, South Tyrol, Vorarlberg
Hectare (ha) 10.000 m² / 100 Ar metric system
Hooves (king hooves = 2 hooves) 30 to 60 acres german-speaking region
Yay 36 Ar / 18 Ar Tyrol, Vorarlberg, South Tyrol
Yoke 5.755 m² german-speaking region
Jugerum (Iugerum) 2.520 m² ancient Rome
Metzen (harlots) different german-speaking region
Tomorrow 2.500 m² german-speaking region
Mommahl 431 m² / 1,079 m² Tyrol, Vorarlberg, South Tyrol
Ouvrée 4.28 Ar = 428 m² France
Square kilometres (km²) 1 million m², 100 ha metric system
Quadratklafter - see Klafter 2.9 to 3.6 m² german-speaking region
Starland 720 m² / 1,116 m² Tyrol, Vorarlberg, South Tyrol
Stremma 1.000 m² Greece
Dash 2.877 m² (half yoke) german-speaking region
Day's work see morning german-speaking region
Ton 0,39 to 0,55 ha northern Europe
Quarter 2.877 m² (half yoke) Austria

See also other dimensional lists under barrel types, bottles, hollow measures, units of measurement, vineyard area, wine containers and wine production quantities (all wine-growing countries with wine quantities and vineyard areas).

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