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Global warming and climate change have increased the frequency of extreme temperatures. This is reflected in the increase in the number of tropical days (days with temperatures above 30 °C); these continue to rise annually. Especially on these days, the vineyard functions can be negatively affected or direct damage can occur to the leaves and berries of the vines. The potential danger is mainly due to a hot period with very high temperatures after a cool period as well as very low humidity. Other causes are too radical defoliation in the grape zone or defoliation caused by heavy hail. Effects are burn damage to exposed berries or grape wilt after previous withering of the berry stalks. In the ripening phase, extreme temperatures have a significant influence on malic acid; temperatures above 40 °Celsius lead to a drastic decrease in the berries. The varieties Chardonnay, Grüner Veltliner, Muscat, Riesling, St. Laur ent and Zweigelt are particularly sensitive. For preventive measures against damage, see Canopy Management.

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