Description (also sulphur-hard) for the smell and taste of a wine in the context of a wine address. This is expressed by the typical, volcanic sulphur smell, a taste of freshly inflamed sulphur wood, as well as a hard, rough and pungent sensation in nose and palate. Frequent causes are excessive sulphur during vinification, which can also lead to a Böckser (sulphur buckser), as well as improper preservation or sterilisation of wine vessels (especially wooden barrels) and bottles. With young wines, a slight "sulphur flower" is relatively common, but this disappears quickly when the wine is poured into the glass. In the case of excessive sulphur, the oxidation of sulphur dioxide in the wine can cause the wine defect sulphuric acid firn. For the maximum limits for sulphur in wine, see sulphurous acid and for other substances see ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake).