The red grape variety originates from the border region Italy (Gorizia)-Slovenia (Goricia). Synonyms are Peteljcice, Refosco, Refosco dal Pecòl Rosso, Refosco Nostrano, Refosco Peduncolo Rosso, Refosk, Rifòsc, Rifòsc dal Pecòl Ròss, Rifosco and Teran Crvene and Teran Crvene Peteljcice. The most famous representative of the Refosco group takes its name from the red coloured stems. The name Refosco dal Peduncolo Rosso first appeared around 1870, when the Refosco varieties were first distinguished. In spite of apparently indicative synonyms or morphological similarities, it should not be confused with the varieties Bonarda Piemontese, Mondeuse Noire, Refosco di Faedis or Terrano. According to DNA analyses carried out in 2006, it is a direct descendant of Marzemino; the second parent is unknown. A direct descendant is Corvina Veronese.
The late ripening variety is susceptible to downy mildew and black spot disease, but resistant to botrytis and esca. It produces dark, acidic and tannic red wines with aromas of plums and almonds. The variety is widespread in the two regions of Friuli Venezia Giulia and Veneto, where it is permitted in numerous DOC wines. These include Colli Orientali del Friuli, Friuli Aquileia, Friuli Grave, Friuli Isonzo, Friuli Latisana, Lison-Pramaggiore and Riviera del Brenta. In 2010, the total Italian cultivated area was 1,082 hectares, with an upward trend (ten years earlier it was 711 hectares). There are also small stands over the border in Slovenia and Greece. However, the variety grown in California under the name Refosco is the French Mondeuse Noire.
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: M.I.P.A.A.F - National Vine Certification Service