A sweet wine made from raisins called Passum was already produced in ancient Rome. Today in Italy, a wine made from dried grapes is called Passito. In the middle of the 19th century, phylloxera was introduced from North America, which subsequently destroyed around three quarters of European vineyards and led to a major shortage of wine. In 1880, France therefore came up with the idea of producing wine from raisins. There was also a very successful book about the "art" of making wine in several editions. Ground raisins were mixed with water heated to 30 °Celsius in a ratio of 1:3 and then left to ferment for 14 days. The result was mixed with simple wine. The maximum production in 1890 was about one ninth of the total quantity of French wine. See also under dessert wine.