Appellation (also Blanc-Fumé de Pouilly) for white wine on the upper course of the Loire southeast of Orléans in the Département Nièvre in central France. It should not be confused with the Pouilly-Fuissé appellation in the Burgundy region of Mâconnais. Monks of the Benedictine order established their vineyards here in the Middle Ages. The area covers more than 1,000 hectares of vineyards in the seven communes of Garchy, Mesves-sur-Loire, Pouilly-sur-Loire, Saint-Andelain, Saint-Laurent-l'Abbaye, Saint-Martin-sur-Nohain and Tracy-sur-Loire (with its associated part Boisgibault). Incidentally, a white wine from this area was one of the favourite wines of the French Emperor Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821). The name is derived from the town of Pouilly-sur-Loire, situated on the right bank of the Loire (which gave its name to its own appellation) and the attribute fumé (smoke). This refers to the typical taste of the wine due to the limestone and flint soil (fusil), or the colour of the berries, which are covered with a smoky grey layer during ripening.