Short name for "fungus-resistant vines", which are the result of crosses between European vines and fungus-resistant species of American vines. Sometimes they are also called fungus-resistant, fungus-tolerant or simply robust varieties. More recent breeding is very complex and Asian v ines may also be involved specifically because of the resistance to frost that is also desired. It is clear from this that all these grape varieties have not been bred using genetic engineering, i.e. without gene transfer. Most of the varieties that are today called hybrids, interspecific varieties or, erroneously, direct carriers (hybrids are not necessarily direct carriers) were developed in France between 1880 and 1935. The aim was to combine the resistance of American vines to fungi (especially mildew) and phylloxera with the quality of the European species Vitis vinifera. The hope that these vines could be grown directly, i.e. ungrafted without grafting, despite phylloxera, was unfortunately not fulfilled.