Term for the best possible state of ripeness of the grapes in the annual vegetative cycle of the vine. The grape harvest should ideally be carried out at this time or grape condition. The term maturation (French: maturité) describes the state of ripeness from the point of view of the sugar or must weight formed (sugar ripeness) in connection with the acidity, whereby a distinction is made between early, full and over ripeness. In some cases, this is also referred to as technical/technological ripeness. The grapes have reached a maximum of stored sugar. The term " physiological ripeness " first emerged in the USA in the 1990s and subsequently became increasingly accepted in Europe. Physiology, as a branch of biology, is the study of the physical and biochemical processes in the cells, tissues and organs of all living organisms.