Hormone-like substances (also exohormones, telergones), which in the form of fragrances or attractants, unlike hormones, do not act within the body but are released to the outside. The name is derived from the Greek words ferein = to transfer and hormãn = to drive or stimulate. In humans, they play an important role in the reproductive instinct, for example androstenone (sweaty smell of the male armpit), copulins (vaginal secretions) and trimethylamine (fish brine). Some of these sexually stimulating "scent attractants" only work on women, others only on men.
In insects, pheromones trigger certain actions or social functions. For example, queen bees release certain pheromones to the worker bees, which prevent them from raising new queens. If the queen and thus the pheromone supply fails, the rearing of a successor or new queen is automatically started. In the vineyard, synthetically produced sexual pheromones are used in the so-called confusion method (mating disorder, sexual confusion) for the environmentally friendly control of animal pests as part of biological plant protection. These include the grape berry moth (or its caterpillars), which are feared in viticulture and are prevented from mating.