The Italian jurist Petrus de Crescentiis or Pier(o) de Crescenzi (1230/1233-1320/1321) studied medicine and law at the University of Bologna and taught there as a professor. He also worked as a lawyer for several cities in northern Italy. In 1299 he retired to his country estate to devote himself to literary studies on agriculture and botany. Between 1304 and 1309 his work the "Ruralia commoda" on horticulture and agriculture was published, sometimes also called the "Liber ruralium commodorum" (book on agriculture). It is divided into 12 parts (books), the fourth part is about vines and wine making. In the 16th century, almost 60 editions were published in Latin, Italian, French and German, some of which also contained many illustrations. The picture at the bottom right shows vine motifs that were issued as stamps and the picture at the very bottom shows a seasonal calendar, which is included in the 12th part of the work and describes the monthly activities in the course of a year.