The Italian jurist Petrus de Crescentiis or Pier(o) de Crescenzi (1230/1233-1320/1321) studied medicine and law at the University of Bologna, where he was a professor. He also worked as a lawyer for several cities in Northern Italy. In 1299 he retired to his country estate to devote himself to literary studies on agriculture and botany. Between 1304 and 1309 his work the "Ruralia commoda" on horticulture and agriculture was published, sometimes also called "Liber ruralium commodorum" (book on agriculture). It is divided into 12 parts (books), the fourth part is about vines and wine making. In the 16th century, nearly 60 editions were published in Latin, Italian, French and German, some of which contained many illustrations. The picture at the bottom right shows wine-growing motifs that were issued as stamps, and the picture at the bottom shows a seasonal calendar, which is included in the 12th part of the work and describes the monthly activities during the course of a year.