The red grape variety most likely comes from Spain. Synonyms grouped alphabetically by country are Bonvedro, False Carignan(Australia); Espagnin Noir(France); Bastardão, Bonvedro, Bomvedro, Lambrusco de Alentejo, Monvedro, Monvedro do Algarve, Monvedro de Sines, Murteira, Olho Branco, Pau Ferro, Perrel, Preto Foz, Preto João Mendes, Tinta Caiada, Tinta Grossa, Tinta Lameira, Tintorro, Torres de Algarve(Portugal); Bonifaccencu, Bonifacienco, Carenisca, Caricagiola(Sardinia); Bastardo, Cua Tendra, Parrel, Salceño Negro(Spain). Although it appears to have synonyms or morphological similarities, it should not be confused with the Graciano, Mazuelo (Carignan) or Monvedro varieties. DNA analyses have shown that the varieties Carcajolo Noir, Carenisca, Parraleta, Salceño Negro and Tinta Caiada are identical.
The variety probably comes from the Spanish area of Somontano in the province of Huelva. Under the name Parrel it was already mentioned in 1765. The vine probably spread from Spain to Portugal, as well as over Sardinia to Corsica (or vice versa). The early maturing vine is susceptible to Botrytis. It produces deep dark, alcohol-rich red wines with a fragrant aroma. In Spain, the area under vines has been drastically reduced since the 1970s, down to just 56 hectares. In Portugal it is mostly cultivated under Tinta Caiada and occupies 171 hectares of vineyards. In Italy, it is cultivated in Puglia, Veneto and under the name Carcajolo Nero in Sardinia, where it covers 119 hectares. In Corsica, only two hectares were recorded under the name Carcajolo Noir. In 2010, 348 hectares of vineyards were designated (Kym Anderson).
Source: Wine Grapes / J. Robinson, J. Harding, J. Vouillamoz / Penguin Books Ltd. 2012
Pictures: M.I.P.A.A.F - National Vine Certification Service