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The Swiss-Austrian physician, alchemist, philosopher and natural scientist Philippus Aureolus Teophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim (1493-1541) was born near Einsiedeln in Switzerland. From 1515 he called himself Paracelsus. In 1527 he became a city doctor in Basel. He settled in Salzburg (today Austria) in 1524/25 and made himself unpopular with Salzburg's Archbishop Matthäus Lang von Wellenburg by supporting the rebels in the German Peasant War. Paracelsus criticized the prevailing doctrine of humoral pathology (four-juice doctrine) of the Greek physician Galen (129-216) and the mere "book wisdom" of medical scholars of the time. He placed scientific experimentation above pure book lore and demanded that the healing power of nature be supported by a natural life. He was the founder of pharmaceutical chemistry and refined alchemy by incorporating medicine.

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