Synonym (also Plant Païen) for the grape variety Savagnin Blanc = Traminer; see there.
The exact origin of the white grape variety is uncertain; it could originate from Germany, France or the Czech Republic (Moravia). The different varieties differ in berry colour, aroma, leaf shape and grape size, as well as in vigour, yield and susceptibility to disease, but they have almost the same DNA profile with minor differences. They are therefore considered as a single grape variety, although they are very much listed separately as distinct varieties in many grape variety catalogues. There are the following three main varieties:
Savagnin Blanc (France) or Gelber Traminer, Weißer Traminer, Traminer (German-speaking region): the French name (also abbreviated Savagnin) is mostly given in international sources. Whether it is really Weißer Traminer or Gewürztraminer is not always free of doubt. This variety is characterized by odorless, yellow-green berries.
Gewürztraminer or Roter Traminer or (especially in France) Savagnin Rose Aromatique: the German name (often with "u" in English-speaking countries) is surprisingly also common internationally. This by far most common variety is characterized by aromatic, reddish/orange berries, which give the wine its typical, name-giving note
Savagnin Rose or Klevener de Heiligenstein or Savagnin Rose Non Musqué: This non-aromatic variety with reddish-brown berries is rare; it is almost exclusively found in the French Alsace as well as in the municipality of Durbach (Baden).
In German-speaking countries, sources usually distinguish between the two varieties Weißer Traminer or Gelber Traminer and Gewürztraminer or Roter Traminer. If only the name Traminer is given, it is usually the Gewürztraminer, but it can also be the White / Yellow Traminer. For the two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose, there are separate keywords with additional information (see there).
DNA analyses carried out independently by different biologists in Italy, France, Germany and Austria proved that the French varieties Savagnin Blanc, Rose and Aromatique, the Swiss varieties Heida, Heidarot and Païen, the Italian Traminer Aromatico and all varieties called Traminer in German-speaking countries are identical. The Swiss biologist Dr. José Vouillamoz therefore thinks that it is wrong to speak of a "Traminer family", as this also associates other relationships like "siblings" or "aunts" and "uncles", which is not true.
The approximately 200 synonyms in countless languages is a record and proves the great age and wide distribution. In most countries, there is no separation in the recording of the game types, but they are mostly reported together. The following synonyms are used as general, neutral terms for Traminer or for the white/yellow variety, but also confusingly often for all varieties (there is no clear classification). The most important ones grouped alphabetically by country are Adelfranke, Edeltraube, Fränkisch, Frennschen, Frentschen, Klevner, Rotfrensch, Weißfrennschen (Germany); Edler Weiß, Weißedler (Alsace); Beaunié, Fromenteau, Fourmentans, Gentil Blanc, Naturé, Naturel, Sauvagnin, Savagnin Jaune, Savagnin Vert, Viclair (France); Traminac (Croatia); Klevner (Austria); Heida, Païen (Switzerland); Brynšt, Drumin, Prync, Tramín Bíly (Czech Republic); Traminec (Slovenia); Altdeutsche/Deutsche, Malvoisie (South Tyrol); Formentin (Hungary). The specific synonyms for the two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose are given there.
The parentage of Traminer has not been completely clarified despite several DNA analyses, respectively there are three different theses. The first thesis is that Traminer was selected from wild vines. According to DNA comparison, there is a parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer....