Synonym (also Plant Païen) for the grape variety Savagnin Blanc (Traminer); see there.
The exact origin of the white grape variety is uncertain; it could come from Germany, France or the Czech Republic (Moravia). The different varieties differ in berry colour, aroma, leaf shape and grape size, as well as in vigour, yield and susceptibility to disease, but they have almost the same DNA profile with minor differences. They are therefore considered as a single grape variety, although they are very much listed separately as distinct varieties in many grape variety catalogues. There are the following three main varieties:
Savagnin Blanc (France) or Gelber Traminer, Weißer Traminer, Traminer (German-speaking countries): The French name (also abbreviated to Savagnin) is mostly given in international sources. Whether it is actually Weißer Traminer or Gewürztraminer is not always clear. This variety is characterised by odourless, yellow-green berries.
Gewürztraminer or Roter Traminer or (especially in France) Savagnin Rose Aromatique: The German name (in English-speaking countries often with "u") is surprisingly also common internationally. By far the most common variety is characterised by aromatic, reddish/orange berries, which give the wine its typical, name-giving note
Savagnin Rose or Klevener de Heiligenstein or Savagnin Rose Non Musqué: This non-aromatic variety with reddish-brown berries is rare; it is found almost exclusively in the French Alsace and in the municipality of Durbach (Baden).
In German-speaking countries, sources usually distinguish between the two varieties Weißer Traminer or Gelber Traminer and Gewürztraminer or Roter Traminer. If only the name Traminer is given, it is usually Gewürztraminer, but White/Yellow Traminer can also be meant. The two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose have their own keywords with additional information (see there).
DNA analyses carried out independently by various biologists in Italy, France, Germany and Austria have proven that the French varieties Savagnin Blanc, Rose and Aromatique, the Swiss varieties Heida, Heidarot and Païen, the Italian Traminer Aromatico and all varieties called Traminer in German-speaking countries are identical. The Swiss biologist Dr José Vouillamoz therefore believes that it is wrong to speak of a "Traminer family", as this also associates other relationships such as "siblings" or "aunts" and "uncles", which is not the case.
The approximately 200 synonyms in countless languages is a record and proves the great age and wide distribution. In most countries, there is no separation when recording the varieties, but they are mostly reported together. The following synonyms are used as general, neutral terms for Traminer or for the white/yellow variety, but also confusingly often for all varieties (there is no clear classification). The most important ones, grouped alphabetically by country, are Adelfranke, Edeltraube, Fränkisch, Frennschen, Frentschen, Klevner, Rotfrensch, Weißfrennschen (Germany); Edler Weiß, Weißedler (Alsace); Beaunié, Fromenteau, Fourmentans, Gentil Blanc, Naturé, Naturel, Sauvagnin, Savagnin Jaune, Savagnin Vert, Viclair (France); Traminac (Croatia); Klevner (Austria); Heida, Païen (Switzerland); Brynšt, Drumin, Prync, Tramín Bíly (Czech Republic); Traminec (Slovenia); Altdeutsche/Deutsche, Malvoisie (South Tyrol); Formentin (Hungary). The specific synonyms for the two varieties Gewürztraminer and Savagnin Rose are listed there.
The parentage of Traminer has not been completely clarified despite several DNA analyses, respectively there are three different theses. The first thesis is that Traminer was selected from wild vines. According to DNA comparisons, there is a parent-offspring relationship between Pinot and Traminer. However,...