You are using an old browser that may not function as expected.
For a better, safer browsing experience, please upgrade your browser.

Log in Become a Member


Term (also pumping over, circulating) for the mixing of the fermenting grape must with the grape skins (mash), which is particularly common in red wine production. During mash fermentation, the solid components (berries, skins, rape) rise to the surface of the fermentation tank due to the carbon dioxide pressure and form the cap. To maintain contact between the cap and the must, the must is pumped from the bottom and poured over the cap. This forces the extraction of colour and tannins from the grape skins, which are then increasingly released into the must.

Alternatively, the cap is submerged mechanically or manually (French pigeage). At the beginning of fermentation during the first few days, this process takes place several times a day and must then be completed at the best possible time. This also depends on the varying colour intensity of the grape skins, depending on the grape variety. The resulting supply of oxygen favours oxidative processes. These techniques are also used in combination with autovinification in large wineries. Other similar processes are listed under the keyword extraction.

Voices of our members

Sigi Hiss

There is a vast number of sources on the web where one can acquire knowledge about wine. But none has the scope, timeliness and accuracy of the information in the encyclopaedia at wein.plus. I use it regularly and rely on it.

Sigi Hiss
freier Autor und Weinberater (Fine, Vinum u.a.), Bad Krozingen

The world's largest Lexicon of wine terms.

26,382 Keywords · 46,989 Synonyms · 5,323 Translations · 31,716 Pronunciations · 202,680 Cross-references
made with by our author Norbert F. J. Tischelmayer. About the Lexicon