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Overpumping

Term (also pumping over, circulating) for the mixing of the fermenting grape must with the grape skins (mash), which is particularly common in red wine production. During mash fermentation, the solid components (berries, skins, rape) rise to the surface of the fermentation tank due to the carbon dioxide pressure and form the cap. To maintain contact between the cap and the must, the must is pumped from the bottom and poured over the cap. This forces the extraction of colour and tannins from the grape skins, which are then increasingly released into the must.

Alternatively, the cap is submerged mechanically or manually (French pigeage). At the beginning of fermentation during the first few days, this process takes place several times a day and must then be completed at the best possible time. This also depends on the varying colour intensity of the grape skins, depending on the grape variety. The resulting supply of oxygen favours oxidative processes. These techniques are also used in combination with autovinification in large wineries. Other similar processes are listed under the keyword extraction.

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