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Osmosis (ancient Greek ōsmós = penetration, propulsion) is the flow of particles through a separating layer. This causes liquid to move through a semi-permeable partition, such as cell walls in living organisms, which separates two liquids of different concentrations. Osmosis is important in metabolism. It was discovered in 1874 by the Danish chemist Jacobus Hoff (1852-1911). This partition (also known as a diaphragm) only allows certain molecules (e.g. water) to pass through, but not the dissolved substance (e.g. sugar). The water penetrates in the direction of the more concentrated solution. Osmosis is also an essential process in nature and also occurs in connection with viticulture, where it plays an important role in the transport of water and nutrients in grapevines.

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