Term for an emotional state of exaggerated ecstasy or an intense feeling of happiness that lifts someone above their normal emotional state. Such a state is induced by, among other things, psychotropic substances. These are active substances that influence the human psyche. Depending on the substance, this is associated with disturbances of consciousness, cognitive abilities, perception, affect and behaviour. As a consequence, intoxication is treated by drinking alcohol. When consumed in excess, alcohol causes disinhibition, increased emotionality, inhibition of thinking, stupefaction and overestimation of oneself. In early advanced civilisations, excessive drinking to the point of drunkenness was a ritualised custom on certain occasions. Until the Middle Ages, excessive intoxication was considered normal. From the 16th century onwards it was outlawed and from the 19th century onwards it was increasingly regarded as a disease (alcoholism).