Designation for modern grape varieties which, from the middle of the 19th century and increasingly in the 20th century, were deliberately produced with breeding intent by the manual crossing of two selected parent grape varieties and by controlled nucleus sowing of the sexually fertilised seeds and, after several years of testing the seedlings, were selected, named and introduced into the market (the process is described under crossing and breeding ). Relatively little is known about the origin of traditional old varieties, most of which were created by spontaneous (natural) but also by human-induced manual crosses. Records are inaccurate, often contradictory, and parentage can only be determined by laborious DNA analysis. In the case of new breeds, on the other hand, the breeder, breeding year, parents and tested characteristics are precisely documented. In addition to the demand for high-quality vines with certain quality characteristics, the main goals are resistance to pests and diseases, such as PIWI = fungus resistance, in order to be able to reduce the use of chemical pesticides.