Term for organisms obtained through breeding. In viticulture, this is understood to mean new grape varieties which, from the middle of the 19th century and increasingly in the 20th century, were deliberately produced by the manual crossing of two selected parent grape varieties and by controlled nucleus sowing of the sexually fertilised seeds and, after several years of testing the seedlings, were selected, named and introduced to the market. Presumably, however, this was already experimented with in ancient times, but there is no written evidence of this. Relatively little is known about the origin of the traditional old varieties, which were largely created by spontaneous (natural) but also by man-made manual crossbreeding. Records are inaccurate, often contradictory, and parentage can only be determined by DNA analysis. In the case of new breeds, on the other hand, the breeder, breeding year, parents and tested traits are precisely documented.
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