Process in the production of sparkling or semi-sparkling wine in which the second fermentation does not take place in the bottle but in a pressurised tank. This is why it is also called tank fermentation or bulk fermentation, Cuve-close in France and Granvás in Spain. The invention is attributed to the French agricultural engineer Eugène Charmat. He experimented with pressurised tanks at the beginning of the 20th century at the university in Montpellier (Languedoc) and introduced the method from 1910. In Italy, however, Federico Martinotti (1860-1924), the director of l'Istituto Sperimentale per l'Enologia di Asti, is regarded as the inventor, who apparently conducted extensive experiments in his institute even before Charmat. He used closed containers that withstood a pressure of up to 6 bar. That is why in Italy the process is patriotically called Metodo martinotti, Metodo martinotti-charmat or Metodo italiano.