Term (also field selection, french: selection massale; massale = mass) for the selection of certain vines with desired positive characteristics such as yield, time of ripening, grape shape (e.g. loose berry) or resistance (e.g. frost, drought, fungi) for the purpose of reproduction. These are also known as elite vines or mother vines and are determined by long-term observation. Depending on the number of vines in the vineyard, this can be several to many. From the selected vines, brushwood is cut and grafted onto suitable rootstocks. This is then used to replace dead, diseased or for other reasons removed vines. In this way, a vineyard can be renewed little by little.