The French physician and chemist Pierre-Joseph Macquer (1718-1784) practised as a doctor for the poor for several years. He also studied chemistry and soon began to conduct chemical investigations on his own. Together with the chemist Antoine Baumé (1728-1804), he founded a pharmaceutical-chemical school. He was the author of several textbooks such as Eléments de chimie-théorique and Dictionnaire de chymie, the first ever chemical encyclopaedic dictionary. He was particularly interested in the application of chemical knowledge in medicine. He is considered the discoverer of arsenic acid and in 1752 he prepared a solution of yellow blood lye salt for the first time. In addition, he also conducted experiments on the addition of sugar to grape must for the purpose of enriching (increasing the alcohol content of) wine. His ideas and findings were later taken up by the chemist Jean-Antoine Claude Chaptal (1756-1832).
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