This training system (also U- or V-training) was developed in the early 1980s by Dr. Alain Carbonneau at INRA in Bordeaux. It consists of a V- or U-shaped support structure that opens upwards and resembles the Greek musical instrument that gives it its name. The vine trunks are about 80 cm high, the row distance is at least three metres. The shoots are divided in such a way that two foliage walls with a hollow area in the middle are created (compared to trellis training with only one foliage wall). This results in a doubling of the leaf surface and thus better utilisation of the solar energy or photosynthesis performance. The grape harvest is also favoured. Disadvantages are the increased effort for foliage care and the poor suitability for mechanical pruning.