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low training

Special ground education form; see there.

The vine training in a vineyard is a key factor in terms of the desired yield and wine quality. Particularly when establishing a new vineyard or reorganising cultivation, for example when converting to organic viticulture, the necessary measures must be decided. The planned establishment of a vineyard or the planting of vines in compliance with all laws, observance of all criteria and the necessary measures are described in detail under the keyword vine establishment plan.

Erziehungsform - Drahtrahmenerziehung mit Kordonschnitt

The picture shows a vineyard in the Santenay area of Burgundy, France. It is planted with Pinot Noir vines trained in a low wire-frame cordon training system.

Definition of the term

There is a wide range of different training methods to specifically control the growth of the vine. The vine is a climbing plant (liana) that cannot hold itself upright and therefore requires a climbing aid or support structure. The wild vines usually climb up young trees and grow upwards with them. For longer cultivation and for the possible use of machines such as grape harvesters, the vines must keep their shape and not grow higher and higher (which they would do).

Thousands of years ago, man therefore began to shorten the shoots and use artificial support devices such as stakes or sticks, frames and slats with taut cords or wires. A decisive measure in the winter break of the vegetation cycle is pruning, in which the one-year-old wood is pruned. Annual measures (winter pruning, summer pruning and foliage care) counteract the effects of apical dominance in order to maintain the chosen system.

Historical systems

Pictorial representations show that even the Egyptians deliberately cultivated vines for wine production. A well-known example is that of the tomb of Chaemwese in Thebes around 1450 B.C. It depicts various wine-making steps such as grape harvesting and fermentation in containers, as well as the loading of a ship with amphorae. The canopy-shaped overhead training system shown in the picture resembles a pergola or trellis training system. Most of the finds come from the city of Luxor in Upper Egypt.

A private vineyard is described in inscriptions from the tomb of Metjen, a high official in the 4th Dynasty (2620 to 2500 BC). He owned a large complex with vineyards in Sakkara in the Nile Delta, which are described in the inscription: A very large pond was created, figs and grapes were planted. Trees and grapes were planted in large quantities and a lot of wine was made from them.

Erziehungsform - Grab des Chaemwese

The Romans laid beams on four piles to create a kind of chamber. The historical chamber construction (picture on the left) was still widespread in German viticulture in the Palatinate at the beginning of the 20th century. The picture on the right shows a medieval depiction of work in the vineyard around the year 1180. This is obviously the form of single-pole training, which was probably widespread in many countries at the time.

Erziehungsform - Kammertbau und Weinbergsarbeiten

Criteria for the form of education

In addition to traditional practices, the criteria for choosing the ideal vine training are the soil type, the desired yield, the climatic conditions, the grape variety with its vigour and tendency to grow in height or width, easier control or preventive prevention of vine diseases as well as cultivation requirements. A specific system is also often prescribed by wine law. In Champagne, only four systems are authorised depending on the grape variety. In the second half of the 20th century, the forms changed drastically with the aim of rationalisation and the possibility of mechanised vineyard management.

The aim of all systems is to achieve the best possible foliage structure for the purpose of quality and quantity, labour-economic advantages and the use of existing environmental resources. The selection also depends on whether wine grapes for winemaking or table grapes for consumption are to be produced and which harvesting method (manual or mechanical) is used. The training forms are named according to stem height, distance between the vines, type of attachment of the new fruit canes or inventor (e.g. Jules Guyot).

Forms of planting

Through winter pruning pruning determines where and how many new shoots grow out of the remaining winter buds in spring, which determines the shape of the vine. With regard to the choice of training system, the following points have an influence on the grape and later wine quality:

Grape zone

The height of the grape zone is a factor in the amount of labour required and the susceptibility to certain vine enemies. The closer to the ground, the more labour-intensive the care and the more likely it is that fungi will get onto the grapes in rainy areas and cause botrytis, downy mildew and black rot in particular. One advantage in northern regions is earlier ripening. The grape zone is between 80 and 130 cm. The height has an effect on the exposure (solar radiation) and thus on the distance between the rows of vines.

Foliage structure

The chosen system should have a good canopy structure....

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