Designation (also original variety) for a grape variety that is considered the origin (mother or father) of many other varieties within a large group in the grapevine family tree. By their very nature, these are exclusively very old grape varieties. Most of the cultivated varieties grown in Western Europe today can be traced back to a relatively small group of leading varieties and their spontaneous (natural) crossings. The most important is probably Gouais Blanc (Heunisch or White Heunisch), from which well over 100 varieties in many European countries are descended. These include Riesling (Germany), Bourboulenc and Chardonnay (France), Xinomavro (Greece), Blaufränkisch and Silvaner (Austria) and Furmint (Hungary).