The French vine grower Eugène Kuhlmann (1858-1932) created numerous new varieties at the Oberlin Institute in Colmar-Elsass in the first third of the 20th century. He was also director of this institute for several years. He created French hybrids throughout (European vines x American vines). The main objective of his breeding activity was to obtain a good resistance to fungal diseases and frost. Varieties bred by Kuhlmann are for example Etoile I (Kuhlmann 237-1), Etoile II (Kuhlmann 237-2), Grisette, Léon Millot (Kuhlmann 194-2), Lucie Kuhlmann (Kuhlmann 149-3), Maréchal Foch (Kuhlmann 188-2), Maréchal Joffre (Kuhlmann 187-1), Neron (Kuhlmann 296-1), Pinard (Kuhlmann 191-1) and Triomphe d'Alsace (Kuhlmann 319-1) In seven of these, the variety Gold Riesling (1) created by Christian Oberlin (1831-1915) was a crossbreeding partner. Due to their fungus resistance they have become interesting again, especially in connection with organic viticulture. Within the EU they are prohibited for quality wine production. Most are also used as table grapes.