The French grapevine breeder Eugène Kuhlmann (1858-1932) created numerous new varieties in the first third of the 20th century at the Oberlin Institute in Colmar-Alsace. He was also director at this institute for several years. He created French hybrids (European vines x American vines) throughout. The main goal of his breeding activities was a very good resistance to fungal diseases and frost. Varieties bred by Kuhlmann are for example Etoile I (Kuhlmann 237-1), Etoile II (Kuhlmann 237-2), Grisette, Léon Millot (Kuhlmann 194-2), Lucie Kuhlmann (Kuhlmann 149-3), Maréchal Foch (Kuhlmann 188-2), Maréchal Joffre (Kuhlmann 187-1), Neron (Kuhlmann 296-1), Pinard (Kuhlmann 191-1) and Triomphe d'Alsace (Kuhlmann 319-3). In seven of these, the variety Goldriesling (1), created by Christian Oberlin (1831-1915), was a crossing partner. Due to their fungal resistance, they have become interesting again, especially in connection with organic viticulture. Within the EU, they are banned for quality wine production. Most of them are also used as table grapes.