The former USSR state and now an independent republic is the ninth largest country in the world, covering some 2.7 million square kilometres. The only national border in the north is that with Russia. Only just under 4% of the risky land area of Kazakhstan offers favourable climate and soil conditions for viticulture. Evidence of grape cultivation dates back to the 7th century BC. Vine cultivation on a larger scale began in the 1930s. At that time, numerous fruit and wine growing kolkhozes were established in the south and southeast of the country on the border to China in the areas of Almaty, Qysylorda and Shambyl.
The continental climate is characterized by very cold winters and low rainfall. Therefore, a large part of the land has to be irrigated artificially with the waters of the rivers Syr-Darja and Ili. In 2012, the area under vines covered 13,000 hectares, of which 155,000 hectolitres of wine were produced (see also under Wine Production Quantities). About one third of this is table grapes. Specialities are fortified dessert wines and sparkling wines. The former capital Almaty (Alma-Ata) is the centre of sparkling wine production. The grape variety index 2010:
|Kuldzhinskii||pink||Chulsinsky, Kouldjinka, Kulchinskii||385|
|Muscat Rose||pink||Variety of Muscat Blanc||227|
|Cornkii Chernyi||red||Majskiy Chernyj, Mayskiy||110|
|Muscat Violet||red||Variety of Muscat Blanc||27|
|Rubinovy Magaracha||red||Magaracha Ruby||?|