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The land of Canaan, the origin of today's Israel, is one of the oldest wine growing regions. The "Promised Land" was settled by the Israelites under Abraham about 2000 to 1900 and under Moses about 1300 to 1200 BC. However, the two events were not exactly the same area, because the borders were fluid and constantly changing. Canaan stretched from Sidon (today Sayda in Lebanon) to Gaza and included the coastal strip and hinterland on the east coast of the Mediterranean Sea with present-day Israel and parts of Lebanon, Jordan and Syria. Today's name Palestine (not to be confused with the much smaller Palestinian autonomous area in the West Bank) was only created under Roman rule in the 2nd century AD. At the time of Moses, Phoenicia (Syria, Lebanon), the Hittite Kingdom (Armenia) and Assyria (Iraq) were located in the north to northeast, and Egypt (Upper Kingdom) in the south. In these countries viticulture played an important role and the landscape of Mesopotamia is considered one of the cradles of wine culture.

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