The term covers all measures to prevent infectious diseases, in particular cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation. In common parlance, it is understood to mean cleanliness - one of the most important prerequisites for the production of quality wine throughout the entire process. This was already known in ancient times and is mentioned in the writings of Cato the Elder (234-149 BC). The preservative effect of sulphur was also known even then, but of course not the reason. The chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was the first to provide scientifically proven bases for this through experimental research in the 19th century. Until then the cause of wine spoilage by microorganisms was unknown. In the 1950s, the University of California proved that the negative effects of bacteria and wild yeasts can be avoided during fermentation by controlling them.
Cleanliness is one of the so-called "5 S" at all stages of winemaking. This begins in the vineyard during the care of the vineyard. Here, the dosed use of agrochemicals(pesticides, artificial fertilizers) helps to reduce or prevent pollution of soil, air and water. The grape harvest must be carried out without contaminating the grapes. Cleanliness is particularly important in all cellar technical measures up to bottling. Numerous wine faults can be avoided by consistently practiced hygiene measures. The presence of biogenic amines in wine indicates poor hygiene during winemaking. These are mainly cadaverine, histamine, isoamylamine, phenylethylamine and putrescine. In a standardised quality control, the corresponding criteria of all steps in the production process are checked. In the IFS system, a negative assessment of personal hygiene is one of the knock-out criteria. See also wet conservation, dry conservation and wine-green.