The term covers all measures to prevent infectious diseases, especially cleaning, disinfection and sterilisation. In common parlance, it is understood to mean cleanliness - one of the most important prerequisites for the production of quality wine throughout the entire process. This was already known in ancient times and is mentioned in the writings of Cato the Elder (234-149 BC). The preservative effect of sulphur was also known even then, but of course not the reason. The chemist Louis Pasteur (1822-1895) was the first to provide scientifically proven bases for this through experimental research in the 19th century. Until then the cause of wine spoilage by microorganisms was unknown. In the 1950s, the University of California proved that the negative effects of bacteria and wild yeasts can be avoided during fermentation by controlling them.