Biogenic amine from the amino acid histidine. The histamine is mainly formed during the spoilage of food and is also produced during alcoholic fermentation. The main cause in wine is the breakdown of proteins by certain bacteria during the main fermentation. In the initial must it occurs, if at all, only in very small quantities. Red wines generally have higher values than white wines. A higher concentration is due to a lack of cellar hygiene, uncontrolled spontaneous malolactic fermentation and prolonged storage in wooden barrels. However, histamine can be almost completely removed by means of bentonite. Possible positive effects are vasodilatation and thus better blood circulation and lower blood pressure, stimulation of gastric juice secretion, and improvement of memory.