Term for a training system in which one-year-old shoots are repeatedly cut at the end of the trunk over several years. This increasingly strengthens the end of the trunk and gives it a head-like appearance. Without a supporting framework, the result is a bush shape after the shoots have grown out. Head training is used in trellis training with different arch cuts (flat, half, pendulum and full arch), as well as buck cut and gobelet. This system, which was already used in ancient times, is suitable for weak-growing vines in areas with low rainfall and is practised today mainly in the Mediterranean region. The green shoots are trellised several times during the vegetative cycle to prevent them from becoming too long. See also lists under vine training (Systems) and vineyard management (Activities).
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