Term for an educational system in which annual shoots are repeatedly cut at the end of the trunk over several years. This increasingly strengthens the end of the stem and gives it a head-like appearance. Without a supporting framework, a bush shape is formed after the shoots have grown out. There is a head training with the trellis training with different bow cuts (flat, half, pendulum and full bow), as well as trestle cut and gobelet. The system used in ancient times is suitable for low-growing vines in areas with little rainfall and is now mainly practised in the Mediterranean region. The green shoots are tipped several times during the vegetation cycle to prevent them from becoming too long. See also the listings under Educational system (systems) and vineyard management (activities).