See under Yield.
Designation for the yield of grapes during the harvest, usually expressed in hectolitres of grape must or wine per hectare or in kilograms of grapes per hectare. Overseas, tons/acre is also common. This is also used as a wine law requirement, expressed as maximum yield in hectolitres per hectare, for certain wine quality levels and can vary greatly depending on the country, wine-growing region, individual sites or even certain wines. In terms of vine density, there has been an extreme reduction over the last two millennia. The Romans still recommended 50,000 vines per hectare; this excluded mechanical cultivation of the vineyard from the outset. In the mid-19th century, the average density was still 20,000 vines per hectare, with yields of no more than 40 hectolitres per hectare. Today, the vines are planted at a distance of 1.5 to 2 metres from each other (this varies from country to country and from wine-growing region to wine-growing region, and also depends on any regional regulations).
In general, it is common to plant an average of 5,000 vines per hectare (see vine training). On a rough average, one vine yields 1.5 to 2.5 kg of grapes for low-yield quality wine, which results in 1.5 to 2 bottles of wine with 0.75 l each. For specialities, or Prädikaten, such as Beerenauslese, Trockenbeerenauslese or Eiswein, it is considerably less. With the grape varieties grown in Germany and Austria, one can expect an average of about 55 to 75 litres of must from 100 kilograms of grapes at normal ripeness. Yield and grape quality are controlled in the vineyard by the vintner through various measures throughout the year, including pruning and foliage care, as well as thinning out (green harvest) and grape splitting or breaking.
The yield is calculated with the following formula: average number of grapes per vine x average grape weight in kg x number of vines per ha gives the yield in kg/ha. A more precise formula taking into account specific values comes from the website "Dienstleistungszentren Ländlicher Raum Rheinland-Pfalz": (pruning [eyes/stock] x budding rate [%] x average number of grapes/shoot x average grape weight [g/cluster] x number of canes/ha) / 1000 = yield [kg/ha]. An example is (12 eyes/vine x 90% x 2.2 clusters/shoot x 120 g/cluster x 5000 vine/ha) / 1000 = 14,256 kg/ha. The specific...
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