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The red grape variety (also called Hartschwarz) originates from Germany. The naame refers to the robustness of the plant as well as the acidity and tannin content. According to DNA analyses carried out in 2016, it comes from a presumably natural cross between Savagnin (Traminer) x unknown partner. It is an all-female grape variety. It was already known in the Middle Ages and was considered extinct before it was rediscovered in 2007 in the Franconian Steigerwald. According to one hypothesis, it has been found on the south-western shore of the Caspian Sea since the Bronze Age and is up to 8,000 years old. The late-ripening, loose-grained vine tends to coulure, but is resistant to grape rot due to its thick berry skin. It produces tannin-rich red wines with aromas of sloe fruit and blackberries with high ageing potential. No stocks were reported in 2016 (Kym Anderson statistics).

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