The small, whitish insects (Heliococcus bohemicus) belong to the scale insects. They attack plant leaves and suck the sap of the plant mostly during the shoot. They excrete wax in the form of powder or threads and leave the sticky honeydew (excrement) on leaves and grapes. They are also carriers of viruses. The species Pseudococcus, Planococcus and Pulvinaria transmit the grapevine leafroll associated virus (GLRaV), which causes leafroll disease. Natural enemies are ichneumon flies and ladybirds, which are deliberately bred in organic viticulture and released for control. Pesticides are used conventionally. See also under vine enemies.